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Airports Council International (ACI)

An international organization, headquartered in Geneva, which represents airport operators. More than 1,900 airports in almost all of the countries in the world are ACI members, including 500 airports in 45 European countries.

Auxiliary Power Units (APU)

In addition to their two or four main engines, today’s commercial aircraft have a smaller auxiliary power unit. The APU is used to start the main engines and to generate electrical power when the plane is on the ground.


Cash flow from operating activities

A business parameter describing the net cash assets obtained from the business activities during an accounting period.

Chapter 2/3 aircraft

These aircraft get their name from the ICAO Noise Standards, Annex 16, Volume 1. They have been banned from use within the EU since April 1, 2002, on account of their noise levels. The German Federal Ministry of Transport records particularly quiet Chapter 3 aircraft in its «bonus list». Aircraft approved after January 1, 2006, now have to comply with the limit values according to ICAO, Annex 16, Chapter 4.

Continuous sound level Leq3

Underlying evaluation measurement for the new German Air Traffic Noise Act. It is a measure of the sound energy at the point of observation and is also referred to as the energy-equivalent continuous sound level. Leq3 is measured over 16 hours during the day, from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. (daytime Leq3), and 8 hours during the night, from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. (night-time Leq3). The six busiest months of the year are taken as the reference baseline.


Specific clauses or (additional) agreements in credit contracts or bond conditions. These are contractually binding guarantees made by the borrower or the bond debtor for the duration of the credit agreement.


DIN EN ISO 14001

DIN EN ISO 14001 stipulates the fundamental structures and requirements for an environmental management system, with which an organization can improve its environmental performance, fulfill its legal and voluntary obligations, and achieve environmental objectives. At the same time, ISO 14001 also acts as the basis for the certification of environmental management systems.


Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT)

Earnings before interest and taxes (and extraordinary profit/loss, where applicable) is commonly also referred to as operating result or pre-tax profit.

Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)

Earnings before interest , taxes, depreciation, and amortization

Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)

The joint system for voluntary environmental management and audits is an instrument developed by the European Commission for companies that wish to improve their environmental performance. EMAS expands the requirements of DIN EN ISO 14001 more stringently, for example in terms of external environmental audits, the continuous improvement of environmental performance, and transparent communications about environment-related developments.

European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)

The European Aviation Safety Agency is the European Union’s flight safety body for civil aviation and is based in Cologne.


German Airports Association (ADV)

The umbrella organization of all passenger airports in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. The organization works to promote Germany as a strong and competitive center of aviation.

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

An independent institution that publishes globally recognized guidelines on sustainability reporting. The GRI standards create a shared language for organizations and stakeholders which can be used to communicate and understand the economic, environmental, and social impacts of organizations. Its aim is to establish a common baseline for communication and to ensure the comparability of sustainability reports.

Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol)

Globally recognized instrument used to quantify and manage greenhouse gas emissions. The GHG Protocol defines requirements governing the calculation of greenhouse gas emissions on an organization-wide scale and the implementation of projects to reduce emissions.


International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

Headquartered in Montreal, the International Civil Aviation Organization is an agency of the United Nations. It has a total of 191 contracting states. The goal of the ICAO and its members is to ensure the safe and sustainable development of civil aviation.


Landing and take-off cycle (LTO cycle)

The landing and take-off cycle refers to an aircraft’s CO2 emissions on the ground and during take-off and landing below an altitude of 3,000 feet (914 meters). Up to this internationally defined height, any greenhouse gases associated with aircraft turbines are attributed to the airport concerned and distances from the airport of about 8 kilometers in the case of departing aircraft, depending on the climbout, and 17 kilometers in the case of arriving aircraft.

The LTO cycle is made up of four phases:

  • Airport approach (up to landing)
  • Taxi-in from the runway to the aircraft stand and taxi-in from the aircraft stand to the runway
  • Take-off
  • Climbout


Particulate matter

The variable PM10 (particulate matter < 10 μm) describes the proportion of particulate matter with a particle diameter of up to 10 μm. As a subset of PM10, PM2.5 contains even smaller particles.



Departures and arrivals areas for passengers from member states that have signed up to the Schengen Agreement; these passengers have either arrived directly from one of these states or want to travel to one. No border or passport controls are needed. Non-Schengen refers to areas for passengers who have arrived from countries that are not party to the Schengen Agreement. Passports and customs checks are required in this case.


Traffic unit (TU)

A measurement unit used to track all commercial passenger and cargo traffic. One TU is equivalent to one passenger arriving at or departing from an airport with hand luggage (a total of 100 kilograms) or 100 kilograms of airfreight or airmail turned over or a combination of passenger volumes (arrivals and departures) and the local airfreight and airmail volumes (unloaded and loaded).